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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 46  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 249-257

Oral health is overall health: Association of maternal periodontal disease with preterm birth, a case–control study


1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Philippine General Hospital, University of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines
2 Department of Hospital Dentistry, Philippine General Hospital, University of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Bernadette Cris L. Festejo
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Philippine General Hospital, University of the Philippines, Taft Avenue, Ermita, Manila 1000
Philippines
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/pjog.pjog_47_22

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BACKGROUND: When it comes to health, the most overlooked aspect of health in the Philippines is oral health. Numerous studies have reported the possible association of maternal periodontal diseases with preterm birth (PTB). However, their association remains controversial. To our knowledge, this is the first local study to describe the prevalence of periodontal disease in pregnant women and its association with PTB. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the association between PTB and maternal periodontal disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PTB or cases (n = 28) included subjects who had spontaneous labor or rupture of membrane and delivered before 37 weeks of gestation. Full-term birth or controls were normal births at or after 37 weeks of gestation (n = 28). Sociodemographic and health-related characteristics were obtained through interviews and medical records. Full-mouth periodontal examination was performed on all mothers within 2 days of delivery. Three indices were utilized to assess periodontal diseases– oral hygiene index-Simplified, Modified Gingival Index and Lindhe Classification of Tooth Mobility. The number of missing teeth and the presence of dental caries, pus, and calcular deposits were likewise noted. RESULTS: Majority of the subjects had poor oral health care - 94.6% visit the dentist only as needed and 53.7% cannot recall their last dental consult. The multivariate logistic regression model, after controlling for other risk factors, demonstrated that gingivitis is a risk factor for PTB (P = 0.0057) with an odds ratio of 20.25. The presence of dental caries is another risk factor (P = 0232). CONCLUSION: With the findings of gingivitis and the presence of dental caries having a significant association with PTB, we recommend a review of current antepartum practice guidelines to include preventive dental care as part of routine prenatal care.


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